After 8 plus years in the fitness industry I think i have been asked the same questions over and over which are great concerns but the thing to understand is it varies from person to person and from day to day. That being said what is optimal for over all wellness is really an accumulation of a lot of small things done right in my opinion. There is no magic number of days per week or reps per set that is the end all be all. The main underlying for what is optimal boils down to consistency and doing a lot of the small things right.
For an optimal approach on the fitness side I believe it is important to be well rounded in your approach touching base with not only strength but flexibility as well! We often times become one dimensional in our activities being just a runner, cyclist, lifter, or yoga. The important thing to understand is flexibility compliments strength and vice versa. In a largely sedentary society its extremely important to focus on flexibly to combat sciatica pain and may other issues that can arise from years behind the desk. The take away, balancing out your workouts is optimal, don't become one dimensional!
When it comes to nutrition this may be a little more challenging finding what is optimal but sorta the same approach of variety and consistency. The thing to understand is our activity level changes on a daily basis therefore so should our caloric intake. If we do a 5 mile hike on the weekends our body will obviously be seeking more fuel than an 8 hour day in the office. Focus on eating color and variety in your approach. We tend to find our go to's just like in fitness not creating a sustainable program that eventually fizzles out. Don't strive for perfection just focus on consistently eating well with some rewards mixed in there. If you have a bad day/week don't sweat it and just focus on the small victories to get back on track!
Overall an optimal approach to fitness and nutrition varies person to person based on goals but when you break it down it all has the same underlying meaning. Here at FGF we give our clients the goal of two strength classes a week and one yoga. This helps to create a balance in workouts and is a goal that is attainable each week, come see for yourself!